Following are the By-Products and their uses:

  • Char:

It is generated during reduction process inside the rotary kiln. After burning of coal in kiln the residue coal comes out from kiln as char. In the char traceable amount of volatile matter, very less amount of Fixed carbon and very high percentage of ash are present.

This char can be used in AFBC along with conventional fuel.

  • Fly Ash:

After maximum burning of coal and char in AFBC boiler, the fly ash is collected in ESP and from there it stored in a designated silo. This fly ash is consisting of high percentage of silica.

Fly ash is being used in cement industry.

  • ESP Dust:

The micron size of dust is collected from char while handling the unfinished DRI.

This can be used in manufacturing of red bricks.

  • Bed Materials:

This is a refractory material which is drained out from the AFBC.

Bed materials are used as a replacement of sand or as sealing materials.

  • Iron Ore Fines:

These are generated during crushing and screening of ROM or oversize iron ore.

Iron ore fines may use in pellet making, sinter plants and cement plants.